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Spelling Rules in english grammer

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Spelling Rules in english grammer 2017

There are few Spelling Rules which should be followed in the formation of words.

 

Doubling the final consonant: 

  1. Words of single syllable ending in single vowel + single consonant, double the consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.


Examples:

  • beg + ed = begged
  • run +ing =running
  • rob + er = robber
  • sad + est =saddest

But if the words ends in two consonant letters or final consonant preceded by two vowels the final consonant is not doubled

Examples:

• wish + ed = wished (two consonants)
• fear + ing = fearing ( two vowels)

2.. For the words of more than one syllable ending in single vowel + single consonant, double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed.

 

Examples:
• Permit +ed =permitted                           •admit + ed = admitted

  • Begin + ing =beginning                       •forget + ing = forgetting
  • Occur +ed =occurred
  • Control + er =controller
  1. The final consonant ‘l’ is doubled, even if the stress does not fall on the last                syllable. 

Examples:

  • Quarrel + ed =quarreled
    • Signal  + ing = signalling
    • Distil   + er = distiller
    •Travel+er = traveller
  1. The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed. 

Examples:
• Benefit +ed = benefited

  • Suffer + ing =sufferingExceptions:
    • Handicap +ed =handicapped
    • Kidnap +er =kidnapper
  1. If the word ends in ‘ll’ drop the final ‘l’ when suffix  ‘ful’ is added.

 Examples:

  • Skill + ful =skilful
    • Will + full =wilful
  1. We often double the final consonant of a word (b, d, g, l, m, n, p, r, t) when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added (-ed, -er, -est, -ing):.

Examples:

  • hop + -ed → hopped • slim + -ing → slimming
  • red + -ish → reddish                                                       • thin + -er → thinner
  • rub + -ed → rubbed                                                        • travel+ -er → traveller
  • sit + -ing → sitting                                                          wet + -er →wetter         

7 For words ending in silent ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
Examples:
• Live + ing =living
• Move + ing =moving
• Drive + ing =driving
• Hope + ing =hoping

NOTE: 
The ‘e’ remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant.
Examples:
• Hope + ful =hopeful
• Engage +ment =engagement

Exceptions:
• True + ly +truly
• Whole +ly =wholly
• Due + ly = duly
• Nine + th =ninth
• Awe + ful =awful
• Argue +ment =argument

  1. Words ending in ‘ce’ and ‘ge’ keep the ‘e’ when ‘able’ and ‘ous’ are added.

Examples:
• Notice +able =noticeable
• Peace +able =peaceable
• Change +able =changeable
• Courage + ous =courageous

  1. Words ending in ‘ee’ do not drop an ‘e’ before a suffix. 

Examples:
• See + ing =seeing
• Agree + ment =agreement

  1. For the words ending in ‘ie’ when ‘ing’ is added change the ‘ie’ to ‘y’.

Examples:

  • Die + ing =dying
    • Tie + ing =tying
    • Lie + ing =lying
  1. For the words ending in ‘y’ when a suffix is added ‘y’ changes to ‘i’

Examples:

  • Happy + ly = happily
    • Beauty + ful =beautiful
    • Carry + ed = carried
    • Marry + ed =married
    • Marry +age =marriage
    • Carry +ing =carrying
    • Marry +ing =marrying

  1. But in the case of suffix beginning with a vowel the final  ‘y’ does not change.

 

Examples: 

  • Pray + ed =prayed
  • Play +er =player

Exceptions:

  • Pay +ed =paid
    • Say +ed =said
    • Lay + ed =laid
    • Day + ly =daily
    • Gay +ly =gaily
  1. When ‘ie’ or ‘ei’ is pronounced like /i:/ as in jeep, ‘i’ is used before ‘e’ 

Examples:
• Believe
• Relieve
• Achieve
• Grieve
• Yield
• Field

Exceptions:
• Seize
• Weird
• Protein
• Surfeit
• Counterfeit
• Plebeian

  1. When ‘ie’ or ‘ei’ is pronounced like /i:/ as in jeep ‘e’  is used before ‘i’ when they are preceded by ‘c’. 

Examples

  • Receive
  • Receipt
    • Deceive
  • Deceit
    • Conceive
    • Conceit
  1. To change a noun from singular to plural or in the case of –sforms of regular verbs.

 

The general rule is adding –s:
Examples

  •       bring → brings
    •day → days
    •ear → ears
  • smile → smiles
  • speak → speaks
  • town → towns
  1. If the ending is pronounced as ‘ch’ /tʃ/or ‘s’ /s/, we add -es/ɪz/:

Examples

 Noun plurals                                                                  verb -s forms 

  • bus→ buses                                                                   • cross → crosses
  • church → churches •fetch → fetches
  • kiss → kisses                                                               •guess → guesses
  1. If the word ends in a consonant + –y, we change –yto iand add –es:

               Noun plurals                        Examples                            Verb -s forms

  • baby → babies                                                          • marry → marries
    •opportunity → opportunities                                        •reply → replies

We add -es to some words ending in –o:

        Noun plurals                                                                   Noun plurals/verb -s forms

  • tomato → tomatoes                                                                    echo → echoes   
  • cargo → cargoes                                                                • embargo → embargoes
  • hero → heroes                                                                       • go → goes

 

  1. However, some words ending in –oonly require –s

 

Examples:

videos, discos, pianos, memos, photos.

19.For some nouns ending in -f or -fe, we form the plural by changing the -f or -fe to -ves:

Examples:

  • loaf → loaves
  • shelf → shelves
  • thief → thieves
  • wife → wives

 

  1. Singular nouns with ‘oo’ change them to ‘ee’ in plural

Examples:

  • Foot → Feet
  • Tooth →Teeth

 

  1. Some nouns ending in ‘us’ are used in plural by changing ‘us’ into  ‘i’ .

Examples:

  • Alumnus → Alumni
  • Cactus  →  Cacti
  • Radius  → Radii
  1. Some nouns ending with ‘is’ are used in plural by changing the ‘is’ to ‘es’

Examples:

  • Axis → Axes
  • Analysis → analyses
  • Basis → Bases
  • Diagnosis → Diagnoses
  • Oasis → Oases
  • Synopsis → Synopses
  • Thesis → Theses
  1. Some nouns ending in ‘ix’ or ‘ex’ are used in plural by changing ‘ix’ or ‘ex’ into ‘ices’

Examples:

  • Appendix→ Appendices
  • Index → Indices
  • Matrix → Matrices

2 thoughts on “Spelling Rules in english grammer

  1. · I also love the photo with the coloured dortt/shuosers. That is a fantastic shot. If I could go anywhere in the world right now it would be Paris. Love that city. I’d live there if I could!

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